The wildly popular Games of Thrones HBO series, based on George R.R. Martin’s bestselling book series, has many historic parallels. Martin has said that he drew upon some topics and countries in medieval history for influence- mainly events that occurred in medieval England, Scotland and France. There are also parallels to “Ancient Rome, the Hundred Years War, the Anarchy, Tudor England, the Dark Ages, the Spartans, possibly Ancient Egypt”. Source
The theme of a long winter on the horizon parallels the end of a “warm period” in Europe around 1300 B.C. When temperatures dropped, “it brought the greatest famine in European history, and left behind what has come to be known as the Little Ice Age”. Source 2
Hadrian’s wall, a Roman-era separation of what is today England and Scotland, has widely been seen to parallel the Game of Thrones wall. The wall was built to keep people of what is today Scotland from being able to cross over to Roman occupied Britain. The Game of Thrones’ version could also have been influenced by the Antonine Wall, which was built by Hadrian’s adopted son.
George R.R. Martin has stated that the political intrigue was influenced by the War of the Roses. The historic version being a civil war in England fought for the right to occupy the English crown. The series of conflicts between two royal houses lasted from 1455 to 1487.